CITATION STYLE GUIDES
This guide is aimed to help students through the often confusing process of citing sources and/or writing reference lists.
Here you will find background information and a links to reliable websites that guide students through academic writing, avoiding plagiarism, citation styling, citation aides, etc.
Why do we cite books, journal articles, web sites. etc we have referred to in a research paper? It's not just about plagiarism!
All writers (that's you!) must cite material...
- To reflect the careful & thorough work you have put into locating and exploring your sources.
- As a courtesy to your reader.
- To acknowledge those authors who made possible particular aspects of your work. Failure to provide adequate citations constitutes plagiarism.
- To demonstrate your integrity and skill as a responsible participant in the conversation of scholarship.
Librarians are often asked"How do I cite this book/journal article/web site in my research paper?" There is not one correct way to cite something. Writing guides (commonly referred to as style manuals) provide rules and instruction on research paper composition.
You should use a style manual in order to properly cite materials, set up footnotes or in-text citations, and/or a works cited list (aka: reference list, bibliography.) Different style manuals are used for different disciplines or subject areas:
- The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used in the Social Science.
- MLA (Modern Language Association) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for the Humanities.
- Turabian (Chicago) A Manual for Writers of Term Papers Theses, and Dissertations for History.
- Council of Science Editors (CSE) Scientific Style and Format for the Sciences.
All of these manuals are available at Healey. Many style manuals (or portions of them) are also freely accessible on the web. See links to the right. However bookstores sell many useful paper or "pocket style" versions which students often prefer. One of the most popular style manuals in print ($$) is A Pocket Style Manual by Diana Hacker (NY: St. Martin's Press, 2011)
Be sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure which style to use for your research paper.
- Guidelines for documenting print and online sources.
- Sample papers with annotations for MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE styles.
- Tips for evaluating print and online sources.
- A list of style manuals for a variety of disciplines.
- A glossary of research terms.
° Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL), general writing help including:
- APA Formating & Style
- MLA Formating & Style
- Chicago Manual of Style
- Formatting in Sociology (ASA)
- Citation Style Chart (side-by-side comparison of APA, MLA, and CMS styles)
° Healey Library Plagiarism Awareness and Prevention