Maintaining ethical standards is paramount in scholarly research. Participation in these activities requires oneself to behave with the highest standards of honesty and responsibility to the contribution of knowledge in their chosen field or discipline.
Scientific research violations are defined as research misconduct. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, identifies the actions of fabrications, falsification, and plagiarism as research misconduct violations.
Research misconduct is outlined in the Public Health Service policies on research misconduct. Final rule. Found in section A. Definition of Research Misconduct, Sec. 93.103
Excerpt from the Academic Honesty section on violations:
Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
Examples of fabrication include:
Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not
accurately represented in the research record.
Examples of falsification include:
According to the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary plagiarism is “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own.”
Plagiarism also means:
Sometimes plagiarism is accidental. It happens when we are not careful about taking notes and forgetting to cite a source, or failing to include quotations around direct quotes. Even though these actions are unintentional they are still considered plagiarism.
The best way to avoid committing accidental plagiarism is to follow research protocols, allow yourself plenty of time to conduct your research and keep careful notes.