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Academic Integrity Guide with Quizzes

Research Misconduct

Maintaining ethical standards is paramount in scholarly research. Participation in these activities requires oneself to behave with the highest standards of honesty and responsibility to the contribution of knowledge in their chosen field or discipline.

Scientific research violations are defined as research misconduct. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, identifies the actions of fabrications, falsification, and plagiarism as research misconduct violations.

Research misconduct is outlined in the Public Health Service policies on research misconduct. Final rule. Found in section A. Definition of Research Misconduct, Sec. 93.103

93.103 Research misconduct.
Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research
results.
(a) Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
(b) Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not
accurately represented in the research record.
(c) Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes,results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
(d) Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion

According to Appendix B: Academic Honesty, Section XII. Academic Honesty Violations (pages 38-41), failure to maintain research integrity is a violation of the Code of Student Conduct:

Excerpt from the Academic Honesty section on violations:

Failing to adhere to professional standards or ethics of a discipline and/ or violating the rules of an agency in the course of completing field work, internship, practicum, student teaching, or clinical placement.

What is Fabrication?

Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.

Examples of fabrication include:

  • making up data for grant funded research
  • altering research results to comply with research findings
  • tampering with image panels in labs
  • making up data in research charts, graphs and illustrations

What is Falsification?

Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not
accurately represented in the research record.

Examples of falsification include:

  • presenting false transcripts or references in an application for a program or grant
  • submitting work that’s not yours or not crediting another researcher
  • falsely reporting data or altering the results of tests
  • mislabeling or reusing images used in research results

What is Plagiarism?

 

According to the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary plagiarism is “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own.”

Plagiarism also means:

  • submitting answers or papers from paid websites such as Chegg is plagiarism if the work is NOT cited
  • submitting someone else's work (in whole, part, or paraphrase) as one's own without fully and properly crediting the author
  • submitting as one's original work materials obtained from an individual or an online source
  • submitting as one's own original work material that has been produced through unacknowledged collaboration with others

Sometimes plagiarism is accidental. It happens when we are not careful about taking notes and forgetting to cite a source, or failing to include quotations around direct quotes. Even though these actions are unintentional they are still considered plagiarism.

The best way to avoid committing accidental plagiarism is to follow research protocols, allow yourself plenty of time to conduct your research and keep careful notes.

Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

Copy and paste computer icons with no symbol

  • Don't Copy and Paste. When using electronic information, read the material and then turn away from the computer and write in your own words the idea you would like to use from the source. This technique also works when you’re using a book, journal or other print materials.

  • Use Citations and Cite Information Accurately. Make sure you follow the proper citation style for your assignment. Citation manuals have tons of examples for you to follow. If you don't have a manual, you will find them in any library, bookstore, or on the web.

  • Pay Attention. Be a careful writer. Make sure you are presenting your own ideas and give credit to others when you use their ideas.

  • Ask for Help. Talk to your professors or librarians about what constitutes plagiarism. If you have questions, bring up specific examples.

  • Plan Ahead. Don't wait until the last minute to research and write a paper. This is when people make mistakes and may plagiarize unknowingly. This is also when people might be tempted to purchase papers online or get a friend to write a speech.  A huge mistake!

 

Related Resources
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